A lot of people think of the old automotive plant robots when someone says robotics. Today, these general types robots are smaller and not just used in automotive plants. It is a booming industry. They still do use brakes for both safety and functionality. Some linkages can use electromagnetic holding brakes which are usually mounted on the motors. If these are monster sized robots then they might use hydraulics or pneumatics for really high torque. You could also have brakes on the gripper mechanism. These are generally smaller electromagnetic spring applied or permanent magnet brakes. Sometimes the brake is integrated with the motor and sometimes it is mounted on the front/back of the motor.
But robotics has become a broader topic. Think of all those four wheeled or tracked robots travelling around. Even if you don't see them, they are out there. They do everything from disable bombs, perform inspections, move items around warehouses. Many of these have some type of holding brake on the wheel drives, especially if they have to travel up inclines or keep in a stable position. If they have some type of arm for picking, placing, etc, it might have a holding brake too. Think about having that arm carry some important material and if that robot loses power the arm would drop without the use of a power-off brake.
Other types of robots are used in the semiconductor industry. Those robotic systems often use some type of quick engaging, zero-backlash, power-off holding brakes. You don't want to lose positioning or risk damaging product if there is a sudden loss of power. Sometimes they have mechanical/manual release features so you can service the equipment when the power if off.
To wrap it up, I'd say that depending on the situation, electromagnetic spring applied brakes and permanent magnet brakes are pretty popular. If it is battery operated, low power and low weight is a priority. If available space is an issue, then there are super thin spring applied brakes or small diameter permanent magnet brakes. If it flies, then there is a long list of concerns...flying robots??
https://ogura-clutch.com/downloads/edit ... decopy.pdf
Also, there is a growing ability to make them smaller. 8mm OD is super tiny for a motor brake (low torque but high speed).
- super thin servo brake .jpg (16.59 KiB) Viewed 1212 times
I found this.
- robotics and warehouse automation.gif (163.55 KiB) Viewed 1210 times
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